Install Debian 9 with RAID 1

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Install wildcard certificates for apache

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Let's encrypt now provides wildcard certificates to be deployed for servers groups and even for the servers at intranet.

I am using CEntOS here.
Install apache and mod_ssl plugin then install certbot package.
Certbot package is available in Epel repository
Enable the EPEL repository
yum install epel-release

Install Certbot with dns plugin
yum install certbot python2-certbot-dns-rfc2136

Start the process with the following command
certbot certonly \--manual \
--preferred-challenges=dns \
--email \
--server \
--agree-tos \
-d *

Replace with your own domain and your email.

Please deploy a DNS TXT record under the name with the following value:


Before continuing, verify the record is deployed.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Press Enter to Continue

Update the TXT record with the generated value and verify the record before pressing enter."7Cvl9fgz8OlwUCJVTFg5dLatVAcQDLPIY66AVImhXhk"

Once it it verified message is displayed as follows.

 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   Your key file has been saved at:
   Your cert will expire on 2019-07-07. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot
   again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot renew"
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

Certificates are saved in the location
/etc/letsencrypt/live/ and  /etc/letsencrypt/live/
Update the certificate and key file location as in apache ssl configuration file.

Install vmware tools in linux virtual machine

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Installing vmware tools in Redhat (CentOS)
 If you have installed Redhat or CentOS in your virtual machine with the minimal software installing vmware tools require installing ifconfig command
ifconfig command can be found in net-tools package to install it run
# yum install net-tools
Load the vmware-tools CD in the virtual machine, unpack the vmware-distribution folder to the desktop or /tmp folder and then run ./ file inside the vmware-tools-distrib folder
# mkdir /mnt/cdrom
# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
# cp /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-{version}.tar.gz /tmp/
# cp /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-9.4.11-2400950.tar.gz  /tmp/
# cd /tmp
# tar -zxvf VMwareTools-9.4.11-2400950.tar.gz
# cd vmware-tools-distrib
# ./

if you are not a root user, append sudo in your commands
An alternative way to install vmware-tools is install open-vm-tools
# yum install net-tools
# yum install open-vm-tools
start the vmware tools service
# systemctl start vmtoolsd.service

Installing vmware tools in Ubuntu
# sudo apt-get install net-tools
# sudo apt-get install open-vm-tools
# systemctl start vmtoolsd.service

Slack alternative

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Slack alternative for team chat

Many alternatives on the subject are on mainstream. Among them I have tried Openfire chatserver and Rocket chat. Since our org do not allow us to leave our intranet and slack does not have the in house installation, the above two are the perfect solution, though there are many chatserver that allow the inhouse installation I am not taking considerations that I haven't tested. Though I was tempted to test others like mattermost, discord and others like I am sticking to the formers till they fulfil the clients request.
Openfire and Rocket chat are both open source and free. Openfire can be installed in Windows and Linux both. I haven't tried Rocket chat in Windows Server. Both the installation are straight forward and can be installed in no time and make them running in your intranet. I integrated both of them to the Active Directory for the users authentication.
Openfire is an XMPP server and all XMPP clients readily connects to its server. I used Install4j to create my own branded version of Openfire client Spark. Its VOIP extension easily connects to the asterisk clients to make VOIP calls.
Rocket chat has modern UI. I used its chat bot and channel feature to generate alerts from my NMS LibreNMS. Previously I used Slack with Observium for this feature.

Unicode converter for Word

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Unicode converter for Word

Nepali non-Unicode fonts to Unicode font converter for formatted documents like word, excel, powerpoint

Many online webpages using javascript are available that convert non-unicode fonts to Unicode fonts for unformatted text that is copy-pasted into the page. My own online version is available at
Preeti to Unicode
Fontasy to Unicode

But when it comes to the formatted documents like in word and excel and with mixed fonts, it becomes difficult to convert using these simple converters. They remove all the formatting and moreover convert all the text to the Unicode or vice-versa. They not only convert Preeti or Kantipur font to Unicode but also the English text to the Unicode making them unreadable.

 Download bulk converts for Word from

Sil converter also works for Excel sheets

New unicode font style compared

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New unicode font style compared

Listed Nepali unicode font styles are compared
Mangal font
Kanjirowa font
Kalimati font
Samanata font
Arial Unicode
Thyaka Robison
Akchyar Unicode
Unicode Nepali fonts comparision

Unfollow Multiple Facebook Groups in easy steps

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Unfollow Multiple Facebook Groups in easy steps

Unfollowing facebook groups is much more annoying and difficult if you have followed many groups and subjects. The easy way for it

  1. Go to News Feed Preferences, below the ACTIVITY LOG and above the SETTINGS on the right drop down of facebook page.
  2. Unfollow people to hide their posts
  3. Click to unfollow people or groups

However it does not unlike the pages or groups. For multiple unliking the pages and groups the following steps could help.

  1. Go to your profile pages
  2. Click on the LIKES on the left panel
  3. On the drop down list click on unlike on every liked pages or groups.